بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Book of Wudhu
Preparations for Prayer – Taharah (Purification)
“O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.” (Holy Quran 5:6)
Cleanliness of the body, clothing, and the places where the prayer is performed is called Taharah. The Muslim must have the proper Taharah before performing the prayers. This comprises the removal of najas (filthy) substances and performing wudhu (ablution) or ghusl (full shower).
Regarding cleanliness, Allah (Subhaanahu Wata’ala says,“Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.” (Holy Quran 2:222)
Removal of Najas (filthy) substances
In Islam, there are substances that are considered filthy and must not be on the person’s body, clothes, place of prayer, or even carried when praying. Some of these substances include:
- Blood and menstrual blood.
- Wadi: A thick white secretion that might be discharged after urination.
- Mathi: A white sticky prostatic fluid, (except sperm or semen).
- Defecation and urine of animals whose meat is not permissible to eat (carnivores).
- Dog saliva or Water remaining after a carnivore has drunk from it.
In general, water can purify anything that is impure. One must remove all impurities from his/her private parts by using any pure matter (i.e. toilet tissue) three times, or by using water, or both. To purify the ground, water should be poured over the impurity on the ground (soil or sand). Then allow the ground (soil or sand) to dry from the impurity (such as urine). This will cleanse the area and purify it, only if there are no visible traces of the impurity left.
The making of Al-Wudhu or Purification by Ablution
The Sunnah procedure and sequence of performing Wudhu are:
1. Have the Niyyah (intention) of Taharah; preferably face the Qibla or Ka’ba, and recite:
أَعُوذ ُبِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ، بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحَيمِ، نَوَيْتُ الوُضوءَ للهِ تَعَالَى
A’udhu bi-Llaahi mina sh-shaytan. Bismi-Llaahi r-Rahmaani r-Rahim Nawaytu l-wudhu’a li-Llaahi ta ‘ala
I seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the Cursed. In the Name of God, the Most Beneficent and Most Munificent. I intend to perform Wudhu for the sake of Allah (Exalted is He).
2. Dua recited while washing each part of the body:
أَعُوذ ُبِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ، بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحَيمِ، نَوَيْتُ الوُضوءَ للهِ تَعَالَى
Bismi-Llaahi r-Rahmaani r-Rahim. Ash-hadhu An-Laa ilaaha ill-Allahu Wa Ash-hadhu an’na Muahammadan ‘Abduhu wa Rasooluh (Sall-Allahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam)
“In the Name of God, the Most Beneficent and Most Munificent. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alaihi WaSallam) is His Servant and Emissary.”
3. Wash the hands up to the wrists, passing the finger of the two hands in between each other. (3 times)
4. Cleanse the mouth with a Miswak or brush or using fingers and gargle. (3 times)
5. Rinse the nostrils from within by sniffing in the water using right hand and blowing out and cleaning using left hand, particularly the smallest finger. (3 times)
6. Wash the face from the normal hairline at the forehead to the chin and from ear to ear including the hair and the skin. (3 times)
7. Wash the right arm up to the elbows and then the left arm. (3 times)
8. Wet the hands with water, pass them (Masah) over the head and pass the back of the hands over the back of the neck or nape as well as the sides of the neck. (3 times)
9. Clean the inner ears with index fingers and the outer ears with thumbs. (3 times)
10. Wash the right foot up to and including the ankles, then the left foot likewise also washing in between the toes. (3 times)
After a Wudhu, if socks (or boots covering ankles) are worn of a strong and water-repellent material (nylons and wool included but not cotton), then for the next Wudhu it is sufficient to pass wet hand over feet (Masah) but these socks must be taken off for washing every 24 hours, and in a journey of 48 miles or more round trip with the intended stay of less than 2 weeks (safar), the limit for Masah is 3 days and nights.
11. Upon completing the Wudhu, recite Surah Al Qadr (Inna Anzalnaahu) or Surah Al Ikhlas three times and recite the following Duas facing the Qiblah:
سُبْحانَكَ اللَّـهُـمَّ وَ بِحَمْدِكْ. أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ لا إِلهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَ أَتوبُ إِلَيْك
Subhaanaka Allahumma wa bi-hamdika. Ashadu an laa ilaa il’la Anta, Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk.
“O Allah! Glory be to You and to You be praise. There is no God but You. I ask your forgiveness and turn to You.”
اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْني مِنَ التَّوَّابين، اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْني مِنَ المُتَطَهِّرين، اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْني مِنَ عِبادَكَ الصَّالِحين، مِنِ الذِّينَ لا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِم وَ هُمْ يَحْزَنون
Allaahumma-j’alni mina t-tawwaabin. Allaahumma-j’alni mina i-muta’tahhirin. Allaahumma-j’alni min ‘ibaadika s-Saalihim mina l-ladhina laa khawfun ‘alayhim wa laa hum yah’zanuun.
“O Allah! Let me be of those who turn in repentance. O Allah, let me be of those who are purified. O Allah let me be of Thy rightous slaves, and let me be of those whom no fear befall, neither of those who grieve.”
Faradh (Obligatory) Acts in Al-Wudhu (Ablution)
There are only four compulsory or obligatory acts in Wudhu, when all of them are completed only then you have performed the ablution. These four obligatory acts are:
- Making Niyyah (Intention) to perform the Wudhu.
- Washing the entire face once.
- Washing both hands and arms up to elbows once.
- Masah (or passing wet hands) over quarter of the head once.
- Washing the two feet up to ankles once.
Sunnah (Traditions of the Holy Prophet) Acts in Wudhu
In the The making of Al-Wudhu or Purification by Ablution section above, the Sunnah acts in performing the ablution are as follows:
- Wash the hands up to the wrists.
- Cleansing the mouth with a Miswak or brush or using fingers and gargle.
- Rinsing the nostrils with clean water.
- Passing wet hands of the head (Masah).
- Washing each body part three times.
- Khilal or the passing of fingers against each other, in between toes and in between beards.
- Following the arrangement in sequence as stated in the above section.
- Washing the next part in the sequence before drying of the preceding part.
- Starting from the right half of any body part.
Also, it is preferred or Mustahab to face towards the Ka’aba in Makkah, and do the ablution sitting on an elevated and clean place.
Making of Al-Ghusl or Purification by Bath
Bath or ablution of the whole body is Fardh or obligatory when an adult had sexual intercourse, emission of semen, nocturnal emission or a wet dream, and also becoming a Muslim for the first time. For women, also on completion of menstruation or haidh, and after child-birth or nifas or the end of the flow of the blood. Bath is Sunnah before the Friday congregational prayer, and preferred at least once a week.
The sequence for Ghusl is as follows:
1. Recite Basmalah
2. Wash the hands until the wrist 3 times, and this is Sunnah.
3. Clean the impurities from the affected areas and private parts with water only. You may use soap only after first washing with water.
4. Perform the Wudhu in the manner mentioned above.
5. Pour water from your head and make the Niyyah, at the same time by reciting:
Nawaitu l-Ghusla li Raf‘i l- Ḥadathi l-Akbari Farḍan li-Llāhi Ta‘ālā
“I intend to perform the obligatory bath to lift me from the state of major filth, for Allāh The Most High.”
6. Spread the water for the first wash well throughout the body, from the tip of the hair to the ends of the feet. You should squat as this shall ensure that all your private parts and hidden areas are cleaned.
7. Wash the right side of your body first, and then the left.
8. Scrub the body thoroughly. Repeat three times, for this is a Sunnah. You may use soap only after washing your whole body the first time using water.
The three Fardh or mandatory requirements when performing the Ghusl are as follows:
- Cleansing the mouth with water.
- Rinsing the nostrils from within with water.
- To pour water over the entire body without leaving anything un-wetted, not even a hair.
The execrable, detestable or disliked acts or Makroohaat-al-Ghusl acts are as follows:
- Wasting of water or use of too little water leaving the bath doubtful.
- Talking (singing or recitation) in bathroom, unless necessary.
- Facing the Qibla during bath.
Performing Tayammum or Dry Ablution
Its is mentioned in the Holy Quran in Surah Al Ma’idah (5:6), “And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.”
Therefore, if one cannot find water for ablution or bath or water washing makes you sick or could start, continue or increase any illness or disease, then it is better to preform Tayammum as follows:
- Niyyah (Intention) of purification (that you are going before the Highest Presence, and that of your own humility before the Creator and the Master).
- Strike pure earth, sand dust, stone or concrete wall lightly with the palms and fingers of both the hands, and then shake or blow off the dust from the hands. Pass the palms and fingers of both hands over the face once.
- Similarly, strike both hands again, and rub alternately (first right then left) from the tip of the fingers to the hand, the fore arms and the elbow. Take off hand watches, rings, bracelets, etc. before Tayammum or Wudhu.
One Tayammum is sufficient for both Wudhu (Ablution) and Ghusl (Bath) when latter is Fardh or compulsory. Tayammum is also nullified for the same reason as Wudhu, and also automatically when the cause (illness, lack of water etc.) is removed.
Importantly, One must make sure that the time of the prayer has set in before performing the Tayammum. The Tayammum is valid for one obligatory prayer only and for as many optional prayers as one wishes. However, one repeats the Tayammum before each obligatory prayer.
Breaches of Al-Wudhu (Ablution) and Tayammum (Dry Ablution)
The acts and circumstances which nullifies the Wudhu or Tayammum will include one or more of the following:
- Discharge or passing of urine, stool or faces semen, wind or worms from the anus, and the issue of any impure matter from the front or the hind private parts.
- Emission and flow of blood or pus from wound and away from its mouth or opening.
- A mouth-full of vomitting.
- Sleeping while lying or even in sitting position but with back leaning against any object even for a moment.
- Insanity, fainting fit, hysteria or intoxication.
- Loud laughter while praying, with a laugh clearly audible to a person next to you.
When performing either the Wudhu or Ghusl, all substances which prevent water from reaching the parts to be washed and wiped must be removed. Substances such as nail polish on fingernails and toenails and waterproof mascara.